The roads to peace are many.
But if we don’t link up, it ain’t gonna happen. The peace organizations and alt-news are competing against a multi-trillion dollar war industry, and that’s no joke.
Below is the second half of the link-list to peace organizations I checked out and like.
That there is no evidence of war, e.g., mass murder of one group of humans by another prior to 12,000 years ago suggests that for the vast majority of pre-history humans lived in tribes that were generally cooperative.
A review of research on the first wars suggest war is of relatively recent origin in human experience. Given that homo sapiens, the first modern humans emerged between 200,000 and 300,000 years ago and wars appear to have only begun sometime in the past 12,000 years, those claiming “humans have always warred!” are almost certainly wrong.
Ethologists, socio-biologists and learning theorists have put forward strong but conflicting evidence surrounding what is often called the “nature-nurture” controversy as it relates to human aggression.
Theories of an instinctual drive towards aggression
On the “DNA driven,” instinctual drive towards aggression side of the argument we can find strong evidence.
Konrad Lorenz in his seminal book “On Aggression,” for example suggested a genetic basis for aggression composed of “behavioral units” which in cases of inter-male aggression are usually ritualized and non-deadly. In monkey tribes initial non-lethal fighting resulting in “ritual mounting” of the subordinate by the alpha monkey. Modern human examples of this might be found in saluting superior officers, bowing before the king, and “bending the knee.”
That however doesn’t explain war which is decidedly deadly.
Kenneth Moyer, author of The Psychobiology of Aggression (Harper & Row, 1976) identified seven circuits for mediating different kinds of aggression in the human brain.
1) Predation: A cross-species form of aggression, where predator stalks, leaps, kills and eats its prey,
2) Fear-induced: Aggression from the intended prey,
3) Inter-male: Aggression that is meant to protect territory or establish dominance,
4) Pain-induced: For example, when two rats are placed in a cage with an wire floor, administered a powerful shock simultaneously, they will immediately attack each other. This also sometimes get triggered when two or more people are forced into extremely stressful situations together.
5) Sex-related: refers to specific behavioral rituals which occur during mating, such as a praying mantis female biting the head off of a male during mating.
6) Maternal: Female defends the nest/her young, tries to distract the predator away from the nest.
7) Instrumental: Learned aggression, such as war (where soldiers don’t want to eat the enemy), prizefighters (not competing over a mate), or an attack dog that follows specific commands (not engaged in predation).
This model outlined by Professor Moyer identifies instrumental or learned aggression as the deadliest of all.
It appears we humans inherit genetic hardware for aggression, but that midbrain circuitry must be woken by environment stimuli to become manifest behaviorally, while at the same time the deadliest form of aggression, war doesn’t really directly come from the midbrain but instead is processed through neocortical (“new brain”) learning.
The qualifier “directly” was added to emphasize that whereas the underlying motivation for war may have psychobiological roots e.g., an unconscious (midbrain) need to assert dominance, (like in the monkey tribe) soldiers are supposed to follow learned commands. For example, in modern American warfare soldiers are supposed to follow Rules of Engagement which are sometimes forgotten.
Aggression is learned, not biologically driven
At the same time cultural anthropology studies of tribes like the Semai of Malaya, demonstrate people can live quite well without aggression.
The culture of the Semai, the peaceful people of Malaya have no government and no police. Instead, they have a non-competitive “gift economy.” Semai children are never punished or forced to do anything against their will. The games of their children are also non-competitive. The Semai culture makes no distinction between private and public. One of their primary activities on a daily basis is sharing the content of their dreams with other tribal members who happen to appear in their dream(s).
Semai: A Nonviolent People of Malaya – Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology, by Robert Knox Dentan, January 1, 1979
Scholarly literature proving humanities innate capacity for peace is extensive.
The following is from: https://peacefulsocieties.uncg.edu/2016/03/03/10346
First perhaps we could introduce Ashley Montagu, a founding figure of peace studies in anthropology. As a humanist and biological anthropologist, Montagu rejected the pseudoscientific and aggressive stereotypes of ‘man the warrior’ and the myth of ‘innate depravity.’ Montagu argued that these labels were biologically reductionist and deterministic. Montagu also brought to light nonviolent and peaceful cultures such as the Fore, Ju/’hoansi, San, Inuit, Semai, and Australian Aboriginals, demonstrating that aggression is largely a learned behavior.
However, Sponsel reminds us that since Montagu’s original research over three decades ago, a wealth of material has been gathered, further documenting and reinforcing his rebuttals of innate human aggression. Fields other than anthropology have also contributed to the view that peace and nonviolence are normative, rather than the exception. Of note is the work of historian, Matthew Melko, who identified 52 societies with periods of peace (without any warfare) lasting more than a century. Melko points out that the emphasis on war in history creates a false impression that peace is rare.
Peace scholar David Fabbro takes the argument for peace to another level by pointing out the features of peaceful societies including egalitarian social structure, reciprocity, and nonviolent values, among others. Sponsel also points out how Bruce Bonta has validated Fabbro’s research with his extensive collection of cross-cultural data. As a result of this wealth of ethnographic material, Bonta posits that the worldview, values, attitudes, and customs of peaceful societies are markedly different from violent and warlike societies. In addition, these societies are committed to nonviolence conflict resolution…
And yet, for all this potential for peace that humans unquestionably do have, for the past 500 years Euro-Americans have promoted and suffered endless wars.
As Oxford Professor Peter Frankopan notes:
“It was not that aggression did not exist in other societies. As numerous examples across other continents would show, any conquest could bring death and suffering on a large scale. But, periods of explosive expansion across Asia and North Africa, such as in the extraordinary first decades of the spread of Islam or during the time of the Mongol conquests, were followed by longer periods of stability, peace and prosperity. The frequency and rhythm of warfare was different in Europe to other parts of the world: no sooner would one conflict be resolved than another would flare up. Competition was brutal and relentless. In that sense seminal works like Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan were quintessential texts that explained the rise of the west. Only a European author could have concluded that the natural state of man was to be in a constant state of violence; and only a European author would have been right.” From: Peter Frankopan, The Silk Roads – A New History of the World, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2016 p. 253 (Peter Frankopan is a professor based at Oxford University)
The founding fathers of the United States might have been able to predict this series of events if they had greater familiarity with Plato’s Republic which asserted democracies devolve into populism. In the postmodern 21st Century the democratic technocracy appears to have devolved into a Tyrannosaurus rex-like corporate profit-driven populist fascism.
The above is the American Department of “Defense.” It exists for one thing: Killing. That’s all it knows. That’s what soldiers are trained to do. I highly recommend all visitors to this site read Carl Sagan’s book: The Dragons of Eden. In that book he finds a large number of similarities between carnivorous dinosaurs and corporations. At the top of the human spinal cord is the most ancient part of the brain, sometimes called the “R-Complex.” It controls heartbeat, breathing and simple attack and defense systems. The “R” in “R-Complex” stands for Reptile. Reptiles are not like Disney cartoons. They may look cuddly to a child, but there is nothing cuddly about a carnivorous dinosaur. They are killing machines.
One might wonder why Americans have experienced nearly constant warfare. Is there is some way, some mechanism that might be able to change the ingrained war habit in the American consciousness?
During especially the past 50 years a very large number of groups have coalesced in the USA and worldwide to advocate for peace. These groups include religious organizations, including Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Buddhist and others, as well as humanists and civil and human rights advocates. All of these organizations work to help foster peace, fairness and understanding between people of all races, religions, nationalities and for the most part gender orientations.
Finding them online isn’t so difficult. Within the diverse community of peace/anti-war organizations there are quite a number of sub-groups.
However, some “peace” and alt-news sites are very deceptive and stealthily add in perspectives supporting endless Euro-American hegemonic wars disguised as “humanitarian interventions.” Some of them are brilliantly written, with barely noticeable poison pills laced throughout the stories, such that by the time one finishes reading them the person needs tissue to dry their eyes. And then the readers solemnly vow that the great wise and kind USA should go in there and kill those atrocious foreign leaders and bring the poor suffering people into the loving embrace of Americanism. This kind of approach however is virtually always a mistake (with Hitler’s Nazism as the exception that proves the rule).
The bottom line on this subject is: There are many ways to help and teach, with war being the absolute worst, regardless as to its disguise. Just so starving the poor via economic sanctions helps no one and kills nine million human beings every year.
It is true those nations suffering American economic sanctions could easily end them overnight by permitting American military bases to be located in their countries and otherwise surrendering all forms of national sovereignty, however there is a growing axis of resistance to Euro-American hegemony in perpetuity.
On a related note, I repeatedly heard as a young child that the American hegemonic drive is the result of hubris.
According to https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hubris
“English picked up both the concept of hubris and the term for that particular brand of cockiness from the ancient Greeks, who considered hubris a dangerous character flaw capable of provoking the wrath of the gods. In classical Greek tragedy, hubris was often a fatal shortcoming that brought about the fall of the tragic hero. Typically, overconfidence led the hero to attempt to overstep the boundaries of human limitations and assume a godlike status, and the gods inevitably humbled the offender with a sharp reminder of his or her mortality.”
I also recall hearing this trait is often associated with adolescence and is something one can outgrow, if the person survives the affliction. And, “It’s best to make your mistakes young in life, because those mistakes made later in life are bound to have much more terrible consequences.”
In the final analysis it is unquestionable that the Western European and American voting public need access to more honest news. Right now mainstream news Media (MSM) is owned by the same corporate shareholders that own stock in the weapons corporations, and their “news” is little more than amplifiers promoting wars based on false and misleading “information.”
Simultaneously there is a vastly more honest and professional news media industry called “alt news.” Unfortunately they live on shoe-string budgets and are being suppressed on search engines.
To their credit many or most of the peace organizations are out there in the field helping the victims of the Euro-American war machine. Some may argue: “It’s a dictator, warlords or terrorists causing these disasters, not the USA!” Ha! I wish that were true. I’ve traveled too. In almost every case those dictators, warlords and terrorists were created by the Euro-American war machine.
Which leads me to implore all peace oriented organizations to put more effort into halting the Euro-American war machine, and the best way to do that is by allowing access to the only honest news media out there: The alt-press. At present most are on life-support. Some are “selling out” to US government funded fake “NGOs” like NED, just to survive. The ever-so-clever Department of Defense in coordination with the “intelligence community” suppressed their internet rankings so much many lost their sponsors. Some of those alternative news services are being starved out just exactly like Iran and Venezuela. To their credit, most are not selling out. How can we help? The Great Linking is one avenue. In one sense it can be thought of as a test of Google’s search engine algorithm. “Links in” from quality sites raise a site’s rank a lot. Thus, I implore all peace oriented organizations to participate in this effort.
I, and this site are not necessary beyond getting this ball rolling. That’s enough. True, it would be nice to collect data on how much in-linking actually improves alt-news site’s ranking. That information would be useful, if for example, it doesn’t improve their ranking and a class-action lawsuit is warranted. On what grounds? Violation of the First Amendment: Press freedom. That Google has a monopoly on internet searches is unquestionable. I am hardly the first or only person to decry this.
Google intensifies censorship of left-wing websites by Andre Damon, WSWS, September 19, 2017
How Google’s search algorithm spreads false information with a rightwing bias, Search and autocomplete algorithms prioritize sites with rightwing bias, and far-right groups trick it to boost propaganda and misinformation in search rankings, Olivia Solon and Sam Levin in San Francisco, The Guardian, Dec. 16, 2021
Google Engineer Reveals Search Engine Bias – He found Google pretty neutral in 2014; the bias started with the US 2016 election, by Denyse O’Leary, Mind Matters, July 27, 2019
Google Has a Striking History of Bias Against Black Girls, By Safiya Noble, TIME, March 26, 2018
The Departure of 2 Google AI Researchers Spurs More Fallout – Two academics changed plans to attend an invite-only conference this week; a third says he’ll no longer accept funding from the company, Tom Simonite, Wired, March 16, 2021
How Google Interferes With Its Search Algorithms and Changes Your Results – The internet giant uses blacklists, algorithm tweaks and an army of contractors to shape what you see, by Kirsten Grind, Sam Schechner, Robert McMillan and John West, WSJ, Nov. 15, 2019
CIA Partners with Google, Amazon and IBM in Latest Big Tech Procurement Drive – The military industrial complex is returning to its roots as the CIA turns to big tech to maintain control and rebuild the war economy, by Raul Diego, Mint Press News, Nov. 23, 2020
Keeping with its Crackdown on Alternative Voices, Google Deletes Press TV from YouTube Press TV says the move is “part of an anti-Iran purge as the West sets its sights on regime change in Iran,”by Alan Macleod, Mint Press News, January 15th, 2020
Combating Facebook & Google Censorship – Mnar Muhawesh discusses social media giants’ efforts to wipe independent journalism off the map and what can be done to combat this deliberate form of censorship, by Mnar Muhawesh Adley, Mint Press News, Dec. 13, 2018
Google, Facebook, and Twitter Are Censoring Iranians – A Censored Student Journalist Speaks Out – Google, Facebook, and Twitter are removing social media accounts of real life Iranians who are falsely dubbed as “government trolls.” Student journalist Sayed Mousavi warns “this is just the tip of an iceberg,”by Ben Norton, Mint Press News August 28th, 2018
How Washington fumbled the future – A decade ago, a surging Silicon Valley giant was making plans to dominate the internet. Given a chance to stop it, regulators chosen by Barack Obama misread the evidence in front of their eyes, by Leah Nylen, Politico, March 16, 2021
The one problem with all those articles is no solution is presented. What is needed is hard data: proof that even following SEO rules, alt-news site rankings are still not improving.
This Great Linking project could provide that data, if the alt-news and peace organizations cooperate.
The alternative? Remain feudalistic organizations enjoying A 501(c)(3) money while nine million humans starve to death every year and innocents continue to be bombed, shot and die of easily preventable diseases.
The following is the only first-person narrative I was able to find online about war experiences by a Syrian.
“A short while after the explosion, I heard a very loud explosion about 2 or 3 times. There was dust all over the house. I could not see anything. Later, I saw one missile come through the roof; another from the window and the third one, I do not know from where. I then looked around and I saw my mother. I went to her and realized that my mother (Rahma Mohammed Mahmoud Al-Samony, then aged 43) died with half of her face blown away. My father (Talal Hilmy Mahmoud Al-Samony, then aged 49) and my only daughter (Aza Salah Talal Al-Samony, then aged 2.5) also died, with their face disfigured. A total of 21 of my family members died. More than 50 of them were injured. There was screaming, shouting and crying. Blood was everywhere. I lifted my daughter and she had wounds on her neck and stomach. She was dead. Then, I heard my wife calling my name. I went to her. There were a lot of dead bodies on top of her. Then, I slowly pulled her out. She was injured and she was covered in blood. Three of my sons were badly injured and the other one had difficulties in breathing even now.”
Why only one published first-person narrative? There should be thousands flooding the internet and newspapers 24/7/365, along with CC 0.0 photos.
Turn on a TV, or go to any movie theater or play any computer game and one can find media glorifying war. Who is telling the truth about those wars? A few movies, yes, but not the high budget movies with the top stars.
The peace organizations and alt-news are getting defeated at every turn. The Department of Defense uses “swarming” methods of overwhelming the adversary with incredible power. Thus, war wins and peace loses again and again and again.
In sum, I hope visitors to this site link up with other peace sites and alt-news. You obviously don’t have to link to all, but the more the better. If ya wanna let me know about it, fine. It might help provide useful data.
WARNING: The following two internet sites contains graphic images of death – innocent specific individual victims of just one American proxy hegemonic war.
All American, British, French, and Israeli voters should spend some time viewing and meditating upon the photos posted on above two internet sites. Those images should be first in their minds before they begin think about who to vote for in the next elections.
If they agree the murder of those children with American military aid, weapons and support is wrong, I hope they also contact their elected representatives, demanding an end to all American foreign “interventions” (wars) and economic sanctions, now.
Moreover, powerful sweeping political campaign finance reform is absolutely necessary to end special interest money funding and causing American and American proxy terrorism and murder.
And, Americans need access to more honest news: Alt-news – the only consistently honest news out there.